Liquidating imagem

[Ei, /r/brasil...] Quanto é "um gole" de líquido? Me ajude a descobrir.

2017.08.26 19:27 schmook [Ei, /r/brasil...] Quanto é "um gole" de líquido? Me ajude a descobrir.

Pessoal, coloquei um questionário no /samplesize para descobrir quanto vale "um gole" de líquido.
https://www.reddit.com/SampleSize/comments/6w6nyn/casual_quantifying_vague_expressions_of_liquid/
Para participar basta responder o questionário.
Lá tem um breve questionário sócio-econômico e depois você será apresentado a uma seqüência de questões que consistem de:
Para cada questão você deve escolher qual imagem se aproxima mais da quantidade de líquido que você associaria com a expressão.
Obrigado por participar e por favor, não zoe o questionário. :)
submitted by schmook to brasil [link] [comments]


2017.07.09 17:36 old_sellsword Flying through the Falcon factory: Annotated

I finally got the chance to sit down and finish pouring over that Hawthorne video Elon released. I started a while ago, but then the SpaceX steamroller came through. I've been waiting for something like this video for quite a while, so I'm glad it finally came, even if the resolution is...well, terrible. But let's get into it!

Flying through the Falcon factory: Annotated

Shot 1

This gives us a really good look at the dance floor with the engines all integrated. It's also a nice reference picture for the Falcon vehicle coordinate system. In my annotated image above, the positive X-axis is going straight into the page. SpaceX uses the right-hand rule for clocking, meaning that angle measurement starts at the positive Z-axis and goes counterclockwise around the positive X-axis. As you can see in the images, all four hold-down pins are located exactly along the Y or Z axis.
Also of note here is that we can see Engine #9's gas-generator exhaust. The outer eight are easy enough to spot (I've marked them in purple), but the ninth is hidden away at about 4 o'clock in the picture (I've annotated it in pink).
And something else I just noticed as I was typing this up! All the engine covers are aligned, which is very aesthetically pleasing. However they're all at an odd angle, and it bothers me even more knowing this:
Falcon 9 is transported[1] on its "long-haul" trailer so that two of those hold-down pins take the weight of the booster instead of just one. That means they roll it so that +Y and -Z are facing generally skywards, with the -Y and +Z pins locked into the trailer. So the these engine covers were actually upside down when this core was being transported, even though they were covered in a black tarp. I've annotated the above transportation image here.[1]

Shot 2

This one is a rather rare view of the octaweb with all its Merlins installed. It also gave me a reality check on just how massive Falcon 9 is; I always see those little hold-down pins[2] on the bottom of the booster and wonder how just four of something so small can take the forces associated with rocketry. But then you realize those pins are 6 inches in diameter, two feet long, and the lugs that hold them are the size of a human torso. Apparently SpaceX had issues with these snapping off during longer McGregor tests, and that's why they use that large orange cap now: it supplements these hold-down lugs once the remaining propellant can't hold the booster down.
All the techs are probably crowded around one of the Quick Disconnect (QD) housings that take fluid and electrical lines from the Tail Service Masts (TSMs) on the launch pad and run them into the rocket. We'll come back to the QDs and TSMs in a later section.
Along the length of the booster, you can see a dark line running all the way to the end. This is the raceway that faces away from the TE while on the pad, located along the +Z-axis using the coordinate system described above. While its exact purpose is unknown, its small size and isolation from everything else on the booster make it a good candidate for the Flight Termination System (FTS) housing. My speculation is partially based on this image of the CRS-5 booster, where you can see a lone, unbroken black cable running down the raceway.
Another quick note: notice how there's nothing between the two hold-down lugs around the perimeter of the octaweb, just complicated engine parts. That's because the octaweb doesn't have an external surface except where the walls of two engine bays meet. This allows for easy access to engines even after they're installed in the octaweb, all it takes is the removal of one panel. This also means that in the event of an engine failure, the weakest link in the chain is that outward-facing panel, not the engines surrounding it.
And one last thing: to the right of the tech in jeans, right on the outward edge of the octaweb next to Engine #7, that white rectangle is a downward-facing radar altimeter. There is one exactly opposite outside Engine #3 as well because these are the engines that are 90º away from the two outer engines that light up for the post-MECO burns.

Shot 3

There's not a whole lot to talk about in this shot. It's a nice overview of the production lanes, but it's a bit far back to see any details. I'll point out that we can see the same exposed octaweb we saw in the last two shots on the left, and in the top right, we can see the bottom of two different cores' RP-1 tanks.
The way Tankland is set up, cores start on the right out of frame, and finish on the left where the one with engines is. Note that the middle four boosters are in two parallel production lines, front and back from this view. This allows for some parallelization of processes, but it's likely minimal compared to the entire production line for a full first stage.

Shot 4

Like the last one, this shot is a nice cinematic one that doesn't give us a ton of detail. However we do get a good look underneath the -Z raceway housing, which covers tons and tons of fluid and electrical lines.[2] Everything from helium piping to avionics wiring has to be strung up through this aerodynamic cover, with the notable exception of the LOX which goes right through the middle of the RP-1 tank (we'll get to that in a later section).
This raceway also contains individual vents for the RP-1 and LOX tanks. These don't vent liquids, but instead they vent the actual atmosphere inside the tanks. Remember that both tanks are pressurized with helium during flight, so upon landing, they're essentially bombs containing non-trivial amounts of volatile liquids. To bleed off this excess pressure, the automated safing procedure includes a step to open these valves and vent the tanks so that their pressure is more or less equal to the local atmospheric pressure (aka 1 atm). You can see this happen in the OG-2 M2 and CRS-11 landing videos.
The focal point of this shot is to highlight the SpaceX logos on the tanks, so we can look at that as well. The big blue SpaceX logos on a Falcon 9 first stage are on the Y-axis, or 90º and 270º if you prefer angles. This correlates to the "sides" of the booster when mated to the TE. The booster on the left obviously follows this pattern because its logo is offset 90º from the 180º raceway. But we don't have any obvious visual clues for the booster on the right yet so we'll leave that one be, for now at least.
Also in this shot, we catch a glimpse of the mobile paint booth. After the cores are finished being welded (like the shiny one in this video), they move down toward the camera into a new lane for painting. The paint booth then slides up and down the stationary (but possibly rotating) core. However as we see in the next shot, the aft skirt is already painted upon mating with the tanks.

Shot 5

This shot gives us a nice look at the general layout of Tankland, which was briefly described above. It was brief because that's about all I know about it in terms of production flow:
  1. On the far right (which is east in terms of cardinal directions, this shot is looking north), past the horizontal silver tank, raw sheet metal is formed into barrel sections.
  2. Then it's friction stir welded (FSW) together and painted where that shiny silver tank is now. In this shot the paint booth mentioned earlier is just out of frame to the south, but it normally slides up and down along the tanks after they move south into the next lane.
  3. Next it moves into either the north or south integration and assembly lanes.
  4. Finally it moves to the last slot on the far west side of the building for interstage, octaweb, and engine integration.
This shot also provides a nice visual overview of that -Z raceway I described in the last section, this time we see it on the nearly complete booster. Also on that booster is an interesting piece of hardware I mentioned earlier, the QD plate. One of the coolest facts (for me personally) about the QD plates is that they have blue covers on them that automatically hinge shut[2] upon liftoff to protect the sensitive connection pieces. This makes sense to us, because those carefully manufactured and tested components would face the brunt of the reentry forces and heating if left exposed during flight. But up until SpaceX started landing boosters, this was a completely irrelevant matter. Once the QD did what it was meant to do (quickly disconnect from the GSE), its job was over and nobody cared what happened to it. But SpaceX wants to reuse those components over and over and over again, so they need to protect it with a hinging cover.
Now the technical aspects of the QD plates: There are two on each first stage, 180º apart from each other. They are both about 10 or 25º clockwise from the two major raceways on the Z-axis. While they take multiple electrical and fluid lines into the rocket, one of their main purposes is to connect the ground-side RP-1 and LOX storage to the first stage's propellant tanks. The QD plate on the "front" of the booster (approximately 350º) transfers the LOX and the one on the "back" (visible in this shot) does the RP-1. At this point however, the actual plate that connects to the TSM is covered by the blue retracting hinge. We’ll get a better look at these later on.

Shot 6

A few things of interest in this one: we can see both boosters' +Z raceways (barren of any wiring, which matches the information that FTS is installed at the launch site), the foreground features the location for a landing leg tip housing, between the C and the E is a coordinate marker, and the top of the booster in the background shows a grid fin latch.
  1. The landing legs don't actually have a very aerodynamic tip to them[3] which actually makes sense since their primary purpose is to be the "feet" for the first stage. Aerodynamic curves don't sound like the best option for solid footing, so they compromised by keeping the structural stability and hiding tips behind a form-fitting wind barrier[2] for ascent (on either side of the C in that picture). That aerodynamic cover needs a place to attach to the booster, and those rivets in the foreground are where they place it. This piece, like many others, doesn't get installed until the booster reaches the launch site.
  2. Between the C and the E in the big SpaceX logo, there is a sheet of 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper taped to the booster. This sheet of paper has either Q1 or Q2 printed on it, and that's yet another reference to the coordinate system explained in the first section. See why I did that first? :P The Y-Z plane can be broken up into four different quadrants, numbered 1 - 4. If you follow the right-hand rule starting at +Z like we did for the angle measurement, the quadrants are just in numerical order, with Q1 covering 0-90º, Q2 covering 90-180º, etc.
  3. The grid fin latch! I've written on this before, so let me copy/paste:
Like almost every other piece of external hardware, it gets an aerodynamic cover before launch, so it's hard to recognize naked. When the fins are stored against the rocket,[4] a pin is extended down through a small attachment[5] on the end of the fins, keeping it in place. Upon MECO and stage sep, that little pin retracts and the fins automatically deploy.

Shot 7

This shot doesn't have a whole lot to annotate per say, but there's plenty to talk about. One thing of particular interest is that it's a closeup look at what is quite clearly a landed booster. Due to when this was shot, it is certainly B1023, back in Hawthorne for its F9 to FH side booster conversion. Speaking of Falcon Heavy, in the original SpaceX thread discussing this video, u/saabstory88 pointed out that the core on the right is a Falcon Heavy center core. In Shot 4 I talked about the SpaceX logo on Falcon 9 first stages, so let's bring that up again.
It would look pretty bad if every core of a Falcon Heavy first stage had two logos on each "side" of the booster, because that would mean four of the six logos would be completely hidden from view and the front of it would be completely white with no markings. So instead of painting the FH center cores like normal F9s (which will double as FH side boosters in the future), they paint the same SpaceX logo on the "front" and "back" of the center core so there will be a SpaceX logo visible when viewing FH head-on while it's mated to the TE.
But wait, aren't the two big raceways going up the front and back of the boosters? Yep, so SpaceX will have to work around this, and that's what we see in this shot here. The booster on the right is missing a strip of paint right through the center of its SpaceX logo because that's where the +Z raceway will go. The gap in the paint matches the size of the raceway nicely, and the other side with the much larger raceway (-Z) will have an even bigger section of the logo covered up. Presumably they're paint the raceway to complete the gaps in the logo like they do on certain landing legs. One final note, that booster is B1033, and it will be the FH center core on the Falcon Heavy demo flight, FH-1.
One last thing here: on the far left booster, I noticed they have the top of the interstage wrapped in sheeting of some kind, even though it's still inside the factory. Those things are apparently quite sensitive, and there's lots of avionic and fluid lines since it houses the first stage ACS, the grid fins, and all three pneumatic pushers plus the center pusher for stage separation.

Shot 8

I admittedly don't know a whole lot about how the actual materials go from raw sheet metal to rocket tanks, so these next sections will be a little bare.
This view is looking straight down on a LOX barrel section of Aluminum-Lithium alloy before it’s welded to other sections to become a full tank. It appears there are two lifts in there with employees inspecting it for defects before it moves on to the next step in production. In the lower right of this shot is what appears to be a similar barrel section, but it has a bulkhead already integrated into it. This would be the very top of the LOX tank, which the avionics sit on top of. I believe Tankland is “up” from this angle, but I'm not positive about that.

Shot 9

The main item of interest in this shot is the tube inside this RP-1 (see the “skin and stringer” construction technique) barrel section of tank. It's not the transfer tube because it doesn't run down the middle of the tank, and we've never seen anything like this before. Some have speculated its purpose is to hold some of the landing propellants like in the ITS tanks, but not quite on the same scale. While ITS will have to hold all the landing propellants inside its mini-tanks, this tube would likely hold just enough propellant for initial startup until enough Gs built up to fully settle the remaining propellants.
On the right hand side of this shot is that horizontal booster that hadn't been painted yet, and there's more to it than initially meets the eye. First, you can see the part in the middle that joins the RP-1 and LOX tanks, along with what I think is the friction stir welding machine working on that seam. Also, there are numerous black rectangles on the outer surface of that tank. These are speculated to be the COPV connection points on the inside of the tank, which we get a great shot of later. You can see these points on landed boosters pretty clearly.[4]
Also one last quick note, you can see a COPV already integrated into an RP-1 barrel section over on the left, that’ll be the main focus of the next section.

Shot 10

There’s no annotations here because there’s really only one thing to focus on, and that’s the red objects in a circular pattern at the bottom of this tank. This view is inside the LOX tank, and those red objects are the infamous Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels, or COPVs for short. They hold very, very high pressure Helium at ridiculously low temperatures inside the propellant tanks, then feed it to various systems during the flight.
There are lots of small ones instead of a few larger ones because each and every rocket has the option to be fitted with multiple configurations of COPVs. Which configuration is used is entirely dependent on the mission at hand, so they've flown various configurations over the years since they’ve done a relatively wide range of mission types. After Amos-6, they didn't really "add more" COPVs as much as they simply eliminated the more "cutting edge" configuration which stuffed as much Helium into as few COPVs as possible.
You may be wondering why they’re red, because the Carbon fiber overwrap is indeed black. That red is simply a protective cover that remains on the COPV while they’re still working inside the propellant tanks, outfitting them with various pieces of hardware and such. I’m not sure when the covers are removed, but obviously before the stage goes vertical at McGregor for its production line test fire.

Shot 11

This is my favorite shot of the entire video. It gives us a really close view of the RP-1 bulkheads of 1023 and 1033, and lots of details on the aft skirt (the area in front of the big metal holding rings). The aft skirt is a cylindrical sheet of metal that’s attached to the bottom of the first stage tanks. The octaweb slides inside the aft skirt and mounted directly to it. On the top of 1033’s aft skirt, we can see a blue QD plate: this is for the LOX lines. In a set of recent recovery pictures, we can just barely make out[6] this blue QD plate on 1029. You can also clearly see the RP-1 QD on the front, color-coded red. I have run across the occasional picture of an RP-1 QD that’s actually yellow, but the large majority are red from what I can tell.
Moving on the to the aft skirt itself, we notice a slight difference between the two. The one on the right (1033) has a sloping “ramp” shape on the side of it, whereas the one on the left (1023) looks more like a standard one. This difference is because the one on the right is connected to 1033, the first FH center core. That “ramp” is located exactly at 270º, right above a hold-down point on the octaweb that will latch onto a FH side booster (possibly even 1023!). This “ramp” appears to be a either a structural reinforcement for the extra loads associated with FH, or possibly an aerodynamic shield for the slightly different FH hold-down points.

Shot 12

This shot gives us a nice view of the RP-1 bulkheads. Notice the holes around the center, those are the RP-1 outlets for each engine. There is one “extra” hole though, located at about 9 o’clock on 1033 (right), which I believe is for the Engine #9. The large hole in the middle is covered by a blue tarp on both boosters, but that hole is where the LOX transfer tube ends. It feeds into a “plate” that covers that hole, which then distributes the LOX to the nine engines. This manifold used to be called the “LOXtopus,” but unfortunately they’ve dropped that name. We can get a decent look at the manifold in this awesome picture SpaceX recently released of 1027’s octaweb-to-tank mate.
Of minor note: we can see three QD plates in this shot, and on the shiny booster to the right we can clearly see those COPV mounting points I mentioned earlier.

Credit where credit is due

None of this analysis would have been possible without the army of media and photographers taking such quality, detailed shots of the hardware. Throughout the post, I put a little bold superscript number in brackets whenever I used an image from the media (SpaceX official doesn’t count). Unfortunately RES does that too so it's a little confusing, but my numbers are bigger and bolder. Those numbers correspond to these photographers:
  1. Scott Murray
  2. Zucal
  3. Lee Hopkins
  4. John Kraus
  5. Spaceflight Now
  6. Bill Jelen
Also, a big thanks to u/Zucal for contributing lots of helpful information (and of course, wild speculation) to this project.
submitted by old_sellsword to spacex [link] [comments]


2017.07.09 06:11 old_sellsword Flying through the Falcon factory: Annotated

I finally got the chance to sit down and finish pouring over that Hawthorne video Elon released. I started a while ago, but then the SpaceX steamroller came through. I've been waiting for something like this video for quite a while, so I'm glad it finally came, even if the resolution is...well, terrible. But let's get into it!

Flying through the Falcon factory: Annotated

Shot 1

This gives us a really good look at the dance floor with the engines all integrated. It's also a nice reference picture for the Falcon vehicle coordinate system. In my annotated image above, the positive X-axis is going straight into the page. SpaceX uses the right-hand rule for clocking, meaning that angle measurement starts at the positive Z-axis and goes counterclockwise around the positive X-axis. As you can see in the images, all four hold-down pins are located exactly along the Y or Z axis.
Also of note here is that we can see Engine #9's gas-generator exhaust. The outer eight are easy enough to spot (I've marked them in purple), but the ninth is hidden away at about 4 o'clock in the picture (I've annotated it in pink).
And something else I just noticed as I was typing this up! All the engine covers are aligned, which is very aesthetically pleasing. However they're all at an odd angle, and it irked me until I realized why:
Falcon 9 is transported[1] on its "long-haul" trailer so that two of those hold-down pins take the weight of the booster instead of just one. That means they roll it exactly 45º so that -Y and +Z are facing generally skywards, with the +Y and -Z pins locked into the trailer. So the engine covers are facing the right way when it's being transported, even if they're covered in a black tarp. I've annotated the above transportation image here.[1]

Shot 2

This one is a rather rare view of the octaweb with all its Merlins installed. It also gave me a reality check on just how massive Falcon 9 is; I always see those little hold-down pins[2] on the bottom of the booster and wonder how just four of something so small can take the forces associated with rocketry. But then you realize those pins are 6 inches in diameter, two feet long, and the lugs that hold them are the size of a human torso. Apparently SpaceX had issues with these snapping off during longer McGregor tests, and that's why they use that large orange cap now: it supplements these hold-down lugs once the remaining propellant can't hold the booster down.
All the techs are probably crowded around one of the Quick Disconnect (QD) housings that take fluid and electrical lines from the Tail Service Masts (TSMs) on the launch pad and run them into the rocket. We'll come back to the QDs and TSMs in a later section.
Along the length of the booster, you can see a dark line running all the way to the end. This is the raceway that faces away from the TE while on the pad, located along the +Z-axis using the coordinate system described above. While its exact purpose is unknown, its small size and isolation from everything else on the booster make it a good candidate for the Flight Termination System (FTS) housing. My speculation is partially based on this image of the CRS-5 booster, where you can see a lone, unbroken black cable running down the raceway.
Another quick note: notice how there's nothing between the two hold-down lugs around the perimeter of the octaweb, just complicated engine parts. That's because the octaweb doesn't have an external surface except where the walls of two engine bays meet. This allows for easy access to engines even after they're installed in the octaweb, all it takes is the removal of one panel. This also means that in the event of an engine failure, the weakest link in the chain is that outward-facing panel, not the engines surrounding it.
And one last thing: to the right of the tech in jeans, right on the outward edge of the octaweb next to Engine #7, that white rectangle is a downward-facing radar altimeter. There is one exactly opposite outside Engine #3 as well because these are the engines that are 90º away from the two outer engines that light up for the post-MECO burns.

Shot 3

There's not a whole lot to talk about in this shot. It's a nice overview of the production lanes, but it's a bit far back to see any details. I'll point out that we can see the same exposed octaweb we saw in the last two shots on the left, and in the top right, we can see the bottom of two different cores' RP-1 tanks.
The way Tankland is set up, cores start on the right out of frame, and finish on the left where the one with engines is. Note that the middle four boosters are in two parallel production lines, front and back from this view. This allows for some parallelization of processes, but it's likely minimal compared to the entire production line for a full first stage.

Shot 4

Like the last one, this shot is a nice cinematic one that doesn't give us a ton of detail. However we do get a good look underneath the -Z raceway housing, which covers tons and tons of fluid and electrical lines.[2] Everything thing from helium piping to avionics wiring has to be strung up through this aerodynamic cover, with the notable exception of the LOX which goes right through the middle of the RP-1 tank (we'll get to that in a later section).
This raceway also contains individual vents for the RP-1 and LOX tanks. These don't vent liquids, but instead they vent the actual atmosphere inside the tanks. Remember that both tanks are pressurized with helium during flight, so upon landing, they're essentially bombs containing non-trivial amounts of volatile liquids. To bleed off this excess pressure, the automated safing procedure includes a step to open these valves and vent the tanks so that their pressure is more or less equal to the local atmospheric pressure (aka 1 atm). You can see this happen in the OG-2 M2 and CRS-11 landing videos.
The focal point of this shot is to highlight the SpaceX logos on the tanks, so we can look at that as well. The big blue SpaceX logos on a Falcon 9 first stage are on the Y-axis, or 90º and 270º if you prefer angles. This correlates to the "sides" of the booster when mated to the TE. The booster on the left obviously follows this pattern because its logo is offset 90º from the 180º raceway. But we don't have any obvious visual clues for the booster on the right yet so we'll leave that one be, for now at least.
Also in this shot, we catch a glimpse of the mobile paint booth. After the cores are finished being welded (like the shiny one in this video), they move down toward the camera into a new lane for painting. The paint booth then slides up and down the stationary (but possibly rotating) core. However as we see in the next shot, the aft skirt is already painted upon mating with the tanks.

Shot 5

This shot gives us a nice look at the general layout of Tankland, which was briefly described above. It was brief because that's about all I know about it in terms of production flow:
  1. On the far right (which is east in terms of cardinal directions, this shot is looking north), past the horizontal silver tank, raw sheet metal is formed into barrel sections.
  2. Then it's friction stir welded (FSW) together and painted where that shiny silver tank is now. In this shot the paint booth mentioned earlier is just out of frame to the south, but it normally slides up and down along the tanks after they move south into the next lane.
  3. Next it moves into either the north or south integration and assembly lanes.
  4. Finally it moves to the last slot on the far west side of the building for interstage, octaweb, and engine integration.
This shot also provides a nice visual overview of that -Z raceway I described in the last section, this time we see it on the nearly complete booster. Also on that booster is an interesting piece of hardware I mentioned earlier, the QD plate. One of the coolest facts (for me personally) about the QD plates is that they have blue covers on them that automatically hinge shut[2] upon liftoff to protect the sensitive connection pieces. This makes sense to us, because those carefully manufactured and tested components would face the brunt of the reentry forces and heating if left exposed during flight. But up until SpaceX started landing boosters, this was a completely irrelevant matter. Once the QD did what it was meant to do (quickly disconnect from the GSE), its job was over and nobody cared what happened to it. But SpaceX wants to reuse those components over and over and over again, so they need to protect it with a hinging cover.
Now the technical aspects of the QD plates: There are two on each first stage, 180º apart from each other. They are both about 10 or 25º clockwise from the two major raceways on the Z-axis. While they take multiple electrical and fluid lines into the rocket, one of their main purposes is to connect the ground-side RP-1 and LOX storage to the first stage's propellant tanks. The QD plate on the "front" of the booster (approximately 350º) transfers the LOX and the one on the "back" (visible in this shot) does the RP-1. At this point however, the actual plate that connects to the TSM is covered by the blue retracting hinge. We’ll get a better look at these later on.

Shot 6

A few things of interest in this one: we can see both boosters' +Z raceways (barren of any wiring, which matches the information that FTS is installed at the launch site), the foreground features the location for a landing leg tip housing, between the C and the E is a coordinate marker, and the top of the booster in the background shows a grid fin latch.
  1. The landing legs don't actually have a very aerodynamic tip to them[3] which actually makes sense since their primary purpose is to be the "feet" for the first stage. Aerodynamic curves don't sound like the best option for solid footing, so they compromised by keeping the structural stability and hiding tips behind a form-fitting wind barrier[2] for ascent (on either side of the C in that picture). That aerodynamic cover needs a place to attach to the booster, and those rivets in the foreground are where they place it. This piece, like many others, doesn't get installed until the booster reaches the launch site.
  2. Between the C and the E in the big SpaceX logo, there is a sheet of 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper taped to the booster. This sheet of paper has either Q1 or Q2 printed on it, and that's yet another reference to the coordinate system explained in the first section. See why I did that first? :P The Y-Z plane can be broken up into four different quadrants, numbered 1 - 4. If you follow the right-hand rule starting at +Z like we did for the angle measurement, the quadrants are just in numerical order, with Q1 covering 0-90º, Q2 covering 90-180º, etc.
  3. The grid fin latch! I've written on this before, so let me copy/paste:
Like almost every other piece of external hardware, it gets an aerodynamic cover before launch, so it's hard to recognize naked. When the fins are stored against the rocket,[4] a pin is extended down through a small attachment[5] on the end of the fins, keeping it in place. Upon MECO and stage sep, that little pin retracts and the fins automatically deploy.

Shot 7

This shot doesn't have a whole lot to annotate per say, but there's plenty to talk about. One thing of particular interest is that it's a closeup look at what is quite clearly a landed booster. Due to when this was shot, it is certainly B1023, back in Hawthorne for its F9 to FH side booster conversion. Speaking of Falcon Heavy, in the original SpaceX thread discussing this video, u/saabstory88 pointed out that the core on the right is a Falcon Heavy center core. In Shot 4 I talked about the SpaceX logo on Falcon 9 first stages, so let's bring that up again.
It would look pretty bad if every core of a Falcon Heavy first stage had two logos on each "side" of the booster, because that would mean four of the six logos would be completely hidden from view and the front of it would be completely white with no markings. So instead of painting the FH center cores like normal F9s (which will double as FH side boosters in the future), they paint the same SpaceX logo on the "front" and "back" of the center core so there will be a SpaceX logo visible when viewing FH head-on while it's mated to the TE.
But wait, aren't the two big raceways going up the front and back of the boosters? Yep, so SpaceX will have to work around this, and that's what we see in this shot here. The booster on the right is missing a strip of paint right through the center of its SpaceX logo because that's where the +Z raceway will go. The gap in the paint matches the size of the raceway nicely, and the other side with the much larger raceway (-Z) will have an even bigger section of the logo covered up. Presumably they're paint the raceway to complete the gaps in the logo like they do on certain landing legs. One final note, that booster is B1033, and it will be the FH center core on the Falcon Heavy demo flight, FH-1.
One last thing here: on the far left booster, I noticed they have the top of the interstage wrapped in sheeting of some kind, even though it's still inside the factory. Those things are apparently quite sensitive, and there's lots of avionic and fluid lines since it houses the first stage ACS, the grid fins, and all three pneumatic pushers plus the center pusher for stage separation.

Shot 8

I admittedly don't know a whole lot about how the actual materials go from raw sheet metal to rocket tanks, so these next sections will be a little bare.
This view is looking straight down on a LOX barrel section of Aluminum-Lithium alloy before it’s welded to other sections to become a full tank. It appears there are two lifts in there with employees inspecting it for defects before it moves on to the next step in production. In the lower right of this shot is what appears to be a similar barrel section, but it has a bulkhead already integrated into it. This would be the very top of the LOX tank, which the avionics sit on top of. I believe Tankland is “up” from this angle, but I'm not positive about that.

Shot 9

The main item of interest in this shot is the tube inside this RP-1 (see the “skin and stringer” construction technique) barrel section of tank. It's not the transfer tube because it doesn't run down the middle of the tank, and we've never seen anything like this before. Some have speculated its purpose is to hold some of the landing propellants like in the ITS tanks, but not quite on the same scale. While ITS will have to hold all the landing propellants inside its mini-tanks, this tube would likely hold just enough propellant for initial startup until enough Gs built up to fully settle the remaining propellants.
On the right hand side of this shot is that horizontal booster that hadn't been painted yet, and there's more to it than initially meets the eye. First, you can see the part in the middle that joins the RP-1 and LOX tanks, along with what I think is the friction stir welding machine working on that seam. Also, there are numerous black rectangles on the outer surface of that tank. These are speculated to be the COPV connection points on the inside of the tank, which we get a great shot of later. You can see these points on landed boosters pretty clearly.[4]
Also one last quick note, you can see a COPV already integrated into an RP-1 barrel section over on the left, that’ll be the main focus of the next section.

Shot 10

There’s no annotations here because there’s really only one thing to focus on, and that’s the red objects in a circular pattern at the bottom of this tank. This view is inside the LOX tank, and those red objects are the infamous Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels, or COPVs for short. They hold very, very high pressure Helium at ridiculously low temperatures inside the propellant tanks, then feed it to various systems during the flight.
There are lots of small ones instead of a few larger ones because each and every rocket has the option to be fitted with multiple configurations of COPVs. Which configuration is used is entirely dependent on the mission at hand, so they've flown various configurations over the years since they’ve done a relatively wide range of mission types. After Amos-6, they didn't really "add more" COPVs as much as they simply eliminated the more "cutting edge" configuration which stuffed as much Helium into as few COPVs as possible.
You may be wondering why they’re red, because the Carbon fiber overwrap is indeed black. That red is simply a protective cover that remains on the COPV while they’re still working inside the propellant tanks, outfitting them with various pieces of hardware and such. I’m not sure when the covers are removed, but obviously before the stage goes vertical at McGregor for its production line test fire.
You may also notice a gap at about 11 o’clock around the red ring. That’s suspiciously close to the size of the “mystery tube” that we saw in the RP-1 tank earlier, so I wouldn’t rule out that the LOX tank has one as well.

Shot 11

This is my favorite shot of the entire video. It gives us a really close view of the RP-1 bulkheads of 1023 and 1033, and lots of details on the aft skirt (the area in front of the big metal holding rings). The aft skirt is a cylindrical sheet of metal that’s attached to the bottom of the first stage tanks. The octaweb slides inside the aft skirt and mounted directly to it. On the top of 1033’s aft skirt, we can see a blue QD plate: this is for the LOX lines. In a set of recent recovery pictures, we can just barely make out[6] this blue QD plate on 1029. You can also clearly see the RP-1 QD on the front, color-coded red. I have run across the occasional picture of an RP-1 QD that’s actually yellow, but the large majority are red from what I can tell.
Moving on the to the aft skirt itself, we notice a slight difference between the two. The one on the right (1033) has a sloping “ramp” shape on the side of it, whereas the one on the left (1023) looks more like a standard one. This difference is because the one on the right is connected to 1033, the first FH center core. That “ramp” is located exactly at 270º, right above a hold-down point on the octaweb that will latch onto a FH side booster (possibly even 1023!). This “ramp” appears to be a either a structural reinforcement for the extra loads associated with FH, or possibly an aerodynamic shield for the slightly different FH hold-down points.

Shot 12

This shot gives us a nice view of the RP-1 bulkheads. Notice the holes around the center, those are the RP-1 outlets for each engine. There is one “extra” hole though, located at about 9 o’clock on 1033 (right), which I believe is for the Engine #9. The large hole in the middle is covered by a blue tarp on both boosters, but that hole is where the LOX transfer tube ends. It feeds into a “plate” that covers that hole, which then distributes the LOX to the nine engines. This manifold used to be called the “LOXtopus,” but unfortunately they’ve dropped that name. We can get a decent look at the manifold in this awesome picture SpaceX recently released of 1033’s octaweb-to-tank mate.
Of minor note: we can see three QD plates in this shot, and on the shiny booster to the right we can clearly see those COPV mounting points I mentioned earlier.

Credit where credit is due

None of this analysis would have been possible without the army of media and photographers taking such quality, detailed shots of the hardware. Throughout the post, I put a little bold superscript number in brackets whenever I used an image from the media (SpaceX official doesn’t count). Unfortunately RES does that too so it's a little confusing, but my numbers are bigger and bolder. Those numbers correspond to these photographers:
  1. Scott Murray
  2. Zucal
  3. Lee Hopkins
  4. John Kraus
  5. Spaceflight Now
  6. Bill Jelen
Also, a big thanks to u/Zucal for contributing lots of helpful information (and of course, wild speculation) to this project.
submitted by old_sellsword to old_sellsword_test [link] [comments]


2015.10.08 02:27 jaykk [USA-CT] [H] Custom Gaming PC (4790K, 8GB RAM, GTX 970, 2x128GB SSD, 2x1TB HDD, H100i) [W] $1200 Shipped PayPal OBO

Timestamp + More Images
Hey guys, I'm here to sell a custom PC I built about a year ago. I previously tried to sell it over eBay, but encountered minor damage in shipping and the buyer was unsatisfied. I am willing to do a local sale if you are in the Connecticut area.
I would love to be able to sell this altogether, but I am willing to sell individual parts if I have to. There are minor scratches on the case as well as a bent pin on the USB Header, so the front ports no longer work.
I will also be throwing in a USB Apple Keyboard and Sandisk Card Reader at no extra charge.
Prices on the list are reflective of current prices respective of the retailer to which I purchased each item from.
PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant
Type Item Price
CPU Intel Core i7-4790K 4.0GHz Quad-Core Processor $339.99 @ Newegg
CPU Cooler Corsair H100i 77.0 CFM Liquid CPU Cooler $109.99 @ Newegg
Motherboard Gigabyte GA-Z87X-UD5 TH ATX LGA1150 Motherboard -
Memory G.Skill Ripjaws X Series 8GB (2 x 4GB) DDR3-1600 Memory $45.99 @ Newegg
Storage Sandisk X110 128GB 2.5" Solid State Drive $102.99 @ Newegg
Storage Sandisk X110 128GB 2.5" Solid State Drive $102.99 @ Newegg
Storage Western Digital Scorpio Blue 1TB 2.5" 5400RPM Internal Hard Drive -
Storage Western Digital BLACK SERIES 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $69.99 @ Newegg
Video Card MSI GeForce GTX 970 4GB Twin Frozr V Video Card $353.98 @ Newegg
Case NZXT S340 (White) ATX Mid Tower Case $69.99 @ Newegg
Power Supply Rosewill Hive 750W 80+ Bronze Certified Semi-Modular ATX Power Supply $89.99 @ Newegg
Other SanDisk ImageMate All-in-One USB 3.0 Reader / Writer $32.95
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total $1318.85
Generated by PCPartPicker 2015-10-07 20:22 EDT-0400
submitted by jaykk to hardwareswap [link] [comments]


2012.06.22 20:16 NasKe [Exclusive] First imagem from "Liquid Rising" (Team Liquid documentary)

[Exclusive] First imagem from submitted by NasKe to starcraft [link] [comments]